Posts Tagged 'information'


On the following lines, it is going to be described one free on-line english dictionary called Yourdictionary. This dictionary can be visited on the website As it has already been said, it is an english dictionary that translate the words from english to english, in other words, monolingual. That is why this book is particularly useful for those persons who are english native speakers or that have already a high level of English. However, many people do not only need only english dictionaries and thanks to this web they can find dictionaries for a lot of different languages, Yourdictionary is also a language portal with more than 2,500 different dictionaries. Moreover, Users can also find grammars in over 300 languages. It has to be said that this incredible site is owned by LoveToKnow Corporation which is a company that also includes sites such as, and

But why is YourDictionary different from others dictionaries like Wordreference? There are several reasons. For instance, one aspect that makes it special is that it has many resources such as the Webster’s New World Dictionary, the American Heritage Dictionary or the Computer Desktop Encyclopedia. Furthermore, some of its resources are taken from wordbooks which are specialized in a certain domain or field. For example, there are some words from the field of law that do not appear in a regular lexicon, but with Yourdictionary the user can find these words thanks to the Webster’s New World Law Dictionary.

Another advantage is the possibility to use  Thesaurus which consists on a reference work that groups together different types of words that have similarity in meaning or that are connected. For example, imagine that you are looking for the word ball, you will find (apart from the definition) words like globe, balloon, baseball… This wordbook has more options than Thesaurus like sentence examples, acronyms, images, idioms, quote examples…You can see in the next image how Thesaurus works.

Moreover, the fact of being able to look up words that we do not know how they are spelled also makes a distinction between the other dictionaries.  Take as an example the word receive. Imagine that you do not know how it is spelled between the letter c to the letter v. The only thing you have to do is to write two question marks where you do not know how it is spelled. E.g : re c??ve( or an asterisk if yo do not really know the number of unknown letters)Finally, the dictionary also includes games for improving our language skills (crosswords, word definition games, anagram puzzles…) and forums to speak about languages or words.

In conclusion, it could be said that the dictionaries of this century are changing the concept of what we understand by dictionary.  We can look up words free, faster, have in the same portal grammars and dictionaries, games for improving our knowledge of the language,forums… Nowadays, there are not excuses for learning new languages. There are magnificent tools available for those ones willing to increase their knowledge of the world!




Governments do not always show all the actions they are doing. There are some things that they do not want to share with the citizens of their countries and the rest of the world. It could be said that there is not transparency in our politicians. Take as an example, Guantánamo, nobody knows what is done there and how detainees are treated. However, there is an organization since 2006 that wants to break all that and is fighting against corruption. This organization is called WikiLeaks. His creator was Julian Assange, who is an Australian publisher  and journalist. The aim of this journalist is to open governments as it is said in Wikileaks’s slogan: “We open governments”

For instance, WikiLeaks is a non-profit organization, in other words, the journalists who work in this organization do not want money. They want to stop how our governments rule our countries. WikiLeaks believes in the Universal Declaration of Human rights which says that everybody has the right to speak freely and without interference of any type. They claim that journalists should be able to write about any topic without being afraid of being sent to prison or something worse. Publishing improves transparency and that is the only way to form a better society.

Wikleaks is compared to Daniel Ellsberg's leaking of the Pentagon Papers in 1971

WikiLeaks has been a success and has won many prizes since it was launched such as  the 2008 Economist Index on Censorship Freedom of Expression award or the 2009 Amnesty International human rights reporting award (New Media). Furthermore, it has broken many stories such as war, killing, torture, finace, taxes… However, the problem has appeared when its creator Julian Assagne was sent to prison due to sexual offences. Some people claim and Julian himself  that governments are politically motivated and want him in prison. There have been many riots in favor of  releasing Assange and this event is being one of the most trending topics of this time.

Many questions have still to be answered. Is  Assange a good person in favor of human rights or is he using the fact of being the creator of WikiLeaks to avoid prision? Are governments against transparency? The truth is that Wikileaks has put governments in an awkward position.


Open Access

For instance, you have to know that scholars are not paid for the articles they publish in  scientific journals. The aim of those articles is to improve the field scholars are studying and show their new discoveries to the world. However, people sometimes do not read their articles because they are restricted to a particular section of society. How can this be changed in order to help improving the right for information of the society? The answer is Open Access.

Open access or (OA)  refers to unrestricted online access to articles published in scholarly journals. Open access breaks barriers and the limits of society. It has to be said that this system could not exist without the appearance of internet. Internet has given the key to society to being able to read a wide range of articles all over the world. Readers can do whatever they want with the articles copy, download, print… However, Open Access is different from open content where users can change the text they are reading.

Many people may think that Open Access is not good for authors. However, this is not true. Everybody will take advantage of Open Access. For instance, there have been many studies that show that articles who are published in open access journals are more cited and read than the rest of the books. Authors will be happy to know that their books are being read and that they are having more impact than if they have been published in a normal journal. Moreover, articles will be more effective because they will be more easy to find and use. Another part of the society that will take advantage of OA will be teachers that will feel safe that their students are using the convenient information to the research they will have to do.

What about quality?  There are some misunderstandings about Open Access. Some people claim that this are second-class papers and that they do not have enough quality. However, these articles are peer review, in other words, they are checked in order to know if they are good enough. Moreover, there will be more competition between scholars that will want their articles to be more cited and read than the ohters.

Finally, there are two ways to publish the articles through Internet. On the one hand, authors can publish their articles in Open Access Repositories which are digital collections of all the articles published by different authors. On the other hand, Open Access journals are also popular. They consist in  peer-reviewed journals whose articles may be accessed online without carge. Many institutions and universities are launching their own digital repositories to publish their articles to the whole public. There is a video in the references that shows very well the desire to improve OA by all the institutions. There also included in the references some interesting repositories where you can find good articles.


Diferencia entre bibliotecas electrónicas, digitales y virtuales.

Numerosas son las cosas que están cambiando debido al desarrollo tecnológico. Una de ellas son las bibliotecas. Antes solo se conocía por biblioteca a un determinado edificio que guardaba diversos textos en formato de papel para que los usuarios pudieran leerlos y utilizarlos. Sin embargo, este concepto ha ido cambiando con el paso del tiempo.  Las bibliotecas han ido evolucionando para satisfacer a los usuarios que quieren una pronta respuesta a sus necesidades. Ahora se conocen tres tipos de diferentes de bibliotecas que difieren en sus características y en el modo que ofrecen sus servicios a los usuarios. Éstos tres tipos son: las bibliotecas electrónicas, digitales y virtuales.

En primer lugar, decir que en multitud de ocasiones se producen ambigüedades entre los términos y se suelen confundir. Aquí les definiremos y los compararemos con exactitud. El primer tipo de biblioteca se llama biblioteca electrónica. Las principales características  de estas bibliotecas es que se encuentran situadas geográficamente en un lugar, es decir, existe un edificio como tal donde se encuentran los libros. Los catálogos, libros y revistas de esta biblioteca están principalmente  en formato papel y cuenta con una serie de soportes electrónicos que les ayudan a los trabajadores y usuarios del lugar a encontrar rápidamente los libros que  buscan y la información deseada. Un ejemplo de biblioteca electrónica es la biblioteca de la Universidad de Deusto. Lopez Guzmán da una clara definición de lo que se entiende por biblioteca electrónica:

“Es aquella que cuenta con sistemas de automatización que le permite una ágil y correcta administración de los materiales que resguarda, principalmente en papel. Asi mismo, cuenta con sistemas de telecomunicaciones que le permiten acceder a su información, en formato electrónico, de manera remota o local. Proporciona  principalmente catálogos y listas de las colecciones que se encuentran físicamente en un edificio.” (Lopez Guzmán)

Por otro lado, existen también las bibliotecas digitales. Se suelen equivocar muchas veces con las virtuales. Sin embargo, mientras que las digitales tienen un edificio como tal donde los usuarios pueden acudir, las virtuales no lo tienen. Las digitales son bibliotecas donde hay soportes electrónicos mediante los cuales las personas pueden cosultar los documentos electrónicos deseados. En cambio las virtuales también disponen de sus documentos en formato electrónico, pero su utilización se hace a través de internet lo que permite que muchas personas tengan acceso a libros que anteriormente les sería imposible. La biblioteca virtual Miguel de Cervantes es un buen ejemplo de como de funcionar este tipo de bibliotecas.


Web 2.0

Basically, the Web 2.0 is a new style of using the Internet. Before now, the Internet was like a big library that had a lot of information. However, nowadays it is seen as a new means of communication. It is a place where people can share information. Moreover, the web is based in communities of users where they share information with the help of blogs, wikis and social-networking sites.

In times of the web 1.0 the user only downloaded  finished webs. But now apart from doing that ,they also do personal contents. For that reason we can say that with web 2.0 the user is more active. There are several causes that can explain this involvement of the user with the web: the increasingly number of users, the broadband…So the web 2.0 is not a technology, is an attitude from the users.


WordPress is one of the blogs that people use for

sharing information.

 The  man who established this term was Tim O’ Reilly in the year 1993. He wanted the people to know that the content was not text, it was a way of interact between the users. Nevertheless,It was not after the O’ Reilly Media web 2.0 conference in 2004 that the concept became notable. According to Tim O’ Reilly:

                                                 “ Web 2.0 is the business revolution in the computer industry caused by the move to the Internet as a platform, and an attempt to understand the rules for success on that new platform”





Mainly, when we talk about hypertext we talk about a text that lead us to another text which is linked to the first one. We are transported from one page to another by hyperlinks. Not only do these links show us another text but they can also show us a video, song, web page…related with the subject.

Hypertext has renewed the way the user has to read an article, has improved  the way of getting information and has finished with the limitations of written text. Nowadays, with hypertext we do not have to read the whole article, we just read what its useful for us and click on an hyperlink to continue reading about what we are interested. The user read the information in a non-lineal way and each user can read the information in the way he want. For example, while I am writing this article, I am searching the data which is going to help me surfing from web to web but maybe another person may do it in a different order.


 This is the way we read with hypertext.All the web is connected.

There are two men extremely connected with hypertext who are  Ted Nelson and Vannevar Bush.Vannevar Bush wrote an article that established the basis of the hypertext in his article”As We May Think” and Ted Nelson coined the terms hypertext and hypermedia.

Finally, People has to do an effort and try to get used to hypertext. It is not like written text, you have to be more attentive to ideas in order to be able to catch the specific information you want.



The Internet is developing in a very fast way. There are appearing new instruments that help us to use it more easily and faster. One of these instruments is RSS. This instrument is a format based in XML and allows you to get up-to-date  informationwithout having to go to all the blogs you normally go. It has to be said that there exist three types of format RSS( Rich Site Summary, RDF Site Summary and Really Simple Syndication) and his initials acquire a different meaning depending which one you are using.


RSS has changed the way we use Internet. Before now, we had to go to every single blog to see if there was new information.It was frustrating when there were no changes and we have gone there for nothing. However, nowadays the news come to us.The RSS has helped us to earn time and not wasting it .

But how does RSS work?If you want to use RSS, you will have to follow these steps.Firstly, you need a RSS reader like Google reader(there are more RSS readers but this is a good one). Then, you create an account in Google reader and go to your favourite blogs. Finally, when you are in the blogs you only have to copy the feedsand add them to Google reader. You will only have to go to Google reader to see if there have been changes in your favourite blogs.

This method is very useful and more and more people are starting to use it. Try to get used  to the symbol of the photograph because you are going to see  it many times.



June 2018
« May    



RSS CiteULike

RSS Rss Planet Littera

  • Critical Essay: Focus on form VS. Focus on meaning 11 February 2014
    Focus on form refers to instruction that focuses learners’ attention to linguistic structure within a meaningful context. In what ways do Swain (1985) and Van Patten (1990) provide empirical support for focus on form as opposed to an exclusive focus ...
  • Chinese New Year customs 6 February 2014
    Chinese New Year, also known as the Spring Festival is the main Chinese festival of the year. Reporters as Lauren Mack and Rose Mathews have written about Chinese traditional New Year celebration. In China it is customary to offer foods … Continu...
    Ainhoa Dárceles Romaratezabala
    “Crises are predictable” said the economist Didier Sornette at TEDGlobal 2013. According to the risk economist we have been living by the illusions produced by the high economic growth that had […]
    Marina Fernández
  • Inundaciones del 83; el renacer del “Bocho” 5 February 2014
    Las inundaciones que sufrió Vizcaya, pero especialmente Bilbao, en agosto de 1983 marcaron un antes y un después en la historia “del bocho”. Las causas de esta terrible catástrofe se centran en la llamada “gota fría” que supone una precipitación abundante y ráfagas de viento huracanas que en ocasiones pueden ir acompañadas de tormentas eléctricas […] […]
    Tamara López Martín
  • Types of tourists 5 February 2014
    As we all know, tourist is the person who travels away from her home and spends more than 24 hours and less than a year in a certain place. People can travel for business and professional reasons, for leisure and holiday … Continue reading →
    Paula Gutierrez