Answer to the second debate.

Orality is a verbal expression used when writing and printing were unknown at all. Studies of oral tradition and orality are pretty much connected. However, orality also touches some other aspects such as political and economial. According to Walter J. Ong, there are two types of orality:

  • Primary orality: This refers to those cultures that didn’t have any knowledge of writing.
  • Secondary orality: It refers to a much more advanced culture, which used to have kowledge of writing. Moreover, it became the medium of memory.

We might find interesting the researches made by Walter J. Ong. Gathered at W. J. Ong [1982] Orality and literacy: Technologizing of the word as well as some words at E. A. Havelock [1986] The muse learns to write.

About writing we can say that it is the representation of a language through some different signs drawn on something, normally engraved. The first writing evidences go back to 4000 b.c but it has been in a non stop developing through the years. Nowadays, it is known that it has been in two different ways along:

  • expressed by ideas.
  • represented by sounds.

In spite of that, nowadays hypermedias, which is a more extended word for hypertext, are becoming more common. It consist of adding videos, graphics, audio… for what we used to write, so that they give the chance of interancting with users.

This way, hypermedia enable us, for instance, to build multisensory texts; words can now be explained by hyperlinked videos in what we could consider an example of secondary orality. Besides, new phenomena like electronic literature, written literary texts thought to be read on the screen, have recently appeared, widening the possibilities of human information transmission. And this is just the beginning.

Group Members: Javier Basterrechea, Yera Espinosa, Saioa Batiz, Adrián Cadenas, Andrea Díaz, Iraia Eizmendi (Group B)


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